The bleaching process used to whiten products, particularly paper,
paper products, and tissue products, is another critical environmental
factor to include in environmentally sustainable criteria. Chlorine
used in manufacturing processes affects not only the environment
but also human health as well.
Up until the late 1990s, chlorine was the chemical of choice for bleaching
paper in the kraft pulping process, which produces almost all printing
and office papers, as well as tissue products, along with some types
of packaging. Not only does chlorine get paper fibers very white,
it also pulls out and binds with lignins (the structural cells in
the tree that cause paper to deteriorate).
However, when chlorine bonds chemically with carbon-based compounds
(such as lignins), it produces dioxins and toxic pollutants. When
released into water, they do not break down. Dioxin, even when released
in miniscule amounts, bioaccumulates as it moves up the food chain,
reaching its highest concentration in humans, where it is increasingly
linked to cancers as well as endocrine, reproductive, nervous and
immune system damage.
As early as 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
labeled dioxin "the most potent carcinogen ever tested in laboratory
animals." EPA has been working for several years on an assessment
of dioxin and its sources. Its report is currently available in
draft form. But it has found that, while
there are some natural causes of dioxins, such as forest fires and
volcanoes, their production is very small compared to human-made
sources. Paper mills figure significantly as one of these human-made
In 1998, EPA released the "Cluster
Rules," which regulate the amount of hazardous pollutants paper
mills are allowed to release, whether to water, air or land. The
mills can develop their own methods for compliance. Many environmental
and health advocates believe that the Cluster Rules do not go far
enough, and disagreement continues over what method of dealing with
dioxins and other chlorinated pollutants is best.
However, what is clear is that there are methods of bleaching paper
pulp that totally eliminate the possibility of dioxins, replacing
chlorine with oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide instead. These
methods are primarily used only in many of the deinking mills producing recycled pulp in North America and in European virgin and recycled pulp mills. North American virgin pulp mills have, instead, converted to "elemental chlorine
free" (ECF) processes that use chlorine derivatives, primarily
chlorine dioxide, instead of elemental chlorine gas. ECF does dramatically
reduce the potential to form dioxins, but does not completely eliminate
it. However, some paper manufacturers and sales representatives
present their papers as "chlorine free" when they mean only that
it was not bleached with chlorine gas, not that no form of chlorine
The Worldwatch Institute
(Paper Cuts, 1999) reports that a mill using standard chlorine bleaching
will release about 35 tons of organochlorines (dioxins and chlorinated
toxic pollutants) a day. An ECF mill will release 7-10 tons per
day. A PCF/TCF mill will release none.
There are four bleaching terms that are important to understand.
Two describe processes to avoid, and two describe processes to encourage.
||A chemical gas that brightens paper fibers and
removes lignins. It binds with carbon-based compounds (such
as trees) to produce dioxins and toxic pollutants. Chlorine
gas bleaching has been phased out in the U.S. and Canada in
favor of chlorine dioxide bleaching.
Use Only If Better Alternatives Are Not
|Elemental Chlorine Free
Uses a chlorine compound, most often chlorine dioxide, that
significantly reduces dioxins but does not eliminate them.
Paper companies using ECF often say that dioxin is "nondetectable"
in their wastewater. This refers only to the sensitivity of
prescribed tests, and does not necessarily mean there are
no dioxins. State-of-the-art tests are often able to detect
dioxins when prescribed tests find them nondetectable.
Some ECF mills go beyond simply bleaching with chlorine dioxide.
If they have added "extended delignification" and do part
of their processing with ozone or oxygen or other non-chlorine
brighteners, they can further reduce their potential for producing
|Totally Chlorine Free
||Uses only non-chlorine bleaching processes, including
oxygen, peroxide and ozone bleaching systems. Eliminates dioxins
and chlorinated toxic pollutants by not producing them in the
|Processed Chlorine Free
||Uses totally chlorine free processing and
includes recycled content. Both the recycled fiber and any virgin
fiber must be bleached without chlorine or chlorine compounds.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Q: If a mill buys pulp to make their chlorine free paper, is
it the bleaching system of the manufacturer or of the pulp supplier
that has to be completely chlorine free?
A: "Chlorine free" is a description of the process used
to make the paper. Therefore, the pulp supplier definitely must
use completely chlorine free bleaching processes. If the manufacturer
bleaches the pulp in its papermaking process, then it, too, must
be chlorine free.
However, some mills buy chlorine free pulp and make paper without
additional bleaching in their own facility. If the pulp is not contaminated
with pulp in the mill that was bleached with chlorine or chlorine
compounds, then it still can produce chlorine free paper.
In addition, a few recycled printing and office papers are made
without any bleaching at all. The scrap paper is simply dumped into
a pulping vat without either deinking or bleaching. This paper almost
always is speckled from the ink particles that were not removed
(considered a desirable graphic effect for many letterheads and
brochures), and would also be considered to be unbleached, or processed
chlorine free. (However, not all speckled papers are made in this
way; many are bleached with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Check
with the mill.)
Q: Isn't PCF paper contaminated by chlorine from the fibers'
original virgin paper production?
A: Because virtually all virgin printing and writing papers
in North America are bleached with some form of chlorine compounds or derivatives,
one can assume that the recycled fibers come from papers originally
chlorine bleached. Some health advocates have been concerned that
trace amounts of chlorine might remain in the fibers.
However, recycling is a very wash-intensive process. Before the
fibers are made into new paper, they are washed, swirled, rubbed,
screened, and rinsed many times. It is unlikely that chlorine will
still be attached to the fibers.
Rather, what matters most is how the paper is made in its recycled
version. If it is processed without any chlorine or chlorine derivatives,
it qualifies as chlorine free paper.
Q: Still, isn't it better to buy paper that is TCF so that there's
no chance any chlorine could have been introduced into the product?
A: It is important that manufacturers, including those making
virgin paper, use chlorine free processes. Not only is this safer
for the environment and human health, but most recycled papers have
some virgin fiber and need reliably chlorine free sources for it.
Still, it's important to remember that the point of asking for truly
chorine free paper is to develop enough market demand for it that
mills will have incentives to switch to it.
At the same time, chlorine free, while very important, is not the
only environmental characteristic to consider in choosing paper.
Combining factors is far better. (See Which
Is Better: TCF, Tree Free or Recycled?) Even when all our paper
is produced in chlorine free processes, we will still need to recycle
it. It is critical to keep the recycling system going now by choosing
recycled content along with chlorine free bleaching. Some tree free
pulps are also chlorine free.
Q: My paper salesperson assured me the paper I bought was chlorine
free. Later, I learned that it was ECF. Did they lie to me?
A: Some people within the paper industry are playing with
semantics. They tell customers that a paper is "chlorine free" when
they actually mean it is "chlorine gas free" or free of "elemental
chlorine." They know most customers will assume that therefore there
is no chlorine involved in the process. However, most North American
mills are now using chlorine dioxide, a derivative
of chlorine. While it dramatically reduces the potential for dioxins
by more than 90%, it cannot completely eliminate them, despite industry
literature to the contrary.
Because the terms are not yet being used consistently and reliably,
you need to investigate the paper's manufacturing process to be
sure it's TCF or PCF.
Q: How can I do that if I'm not a paper manufacturing expert?
Besides, I don't have time to investigate every paper I use.
A: Fortunately, you have help. The Chlorine
Free Products Association certifies papers that meet their criteria
for chlorine free, which includes several factors in addition to
the bleaching method. It awards its PCF symbol to papers that contain
a minimum of 30% postconsumer fiber, have not been rebleached with
chlorine-containing compounds, are made in mills without outstanding
environmental violations, and use TCF virgin pulp (when virgin fiber
is included in the paper) that did not come from old growth forests.
Its TCF symbol is awarded to virgin papers meeting the same criteria,
without, of course, the recycled content requirement. CFPA's process
includes visits to the mills and extensive documentation.
Of course, not all chlorine free papers have gone through CFPA's
certification process, yet they are still manufactured in a chlorine
free process. Conservatree identifies chlorine free papers on our
paper listings that either have gotten CFPA or other chlorine free
certifications, or that we have interviewed mill representatives
enough about to be convinced that they, also, qualify as chlorine
free. While an intensive investigation process, such as is conducted
through certification, is the best assurance that the papers meet
your expectations, there are many non-certified papers that are
reliably chlorine free (TCF and PCF) as well.